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Reading: типы вопросов

Типы вопросов в секции «Чтение»

 

Вопросы о фактах / деталях

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

According to paragraph X...

It is stated in paragraph X

It is indicated in paragraph X...

It is mentioned in paragraph X...

 

 

Где искать ответ:

Порядок  вопросов соответствуют тому порядку, в котором информация представлена в тексте. В этом типе вопросов обычно указывается параграф, где необходимо искать ответ.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

1. Определите ключевое слово или идею в вопросе.

2. Найдите ключевое слово / идею или их синонимы в соответствующем параграфе.

3. Внимательно прочитайте предложения, в которых содержится ключевое слово или идея.

4. Исключите все определенно неправильные ответы, и выберите тот, который ближе всего отвечает на вопрос. Помните, что правильный ответ чаще всего является перефразированием идеи, изложенной в тексте.

 

Пример

Ghost Words

A ghost word is a nonexistent word that has made its way into a reference work by mistake. One well-known example of a ghost word is the word  Dord, which appeared in a 1934 American dictionary defined as density, as it is used in physics and chemistry. Dord was added to the dictionary when a typesetter who was making entries into the dictionary misread the entry D or d and typed it as Dord. In reality, the letter d (or its capitalized version D) was used to refer to density in physics or chemistry. When the error was discovered, the ghost word Dord was removed from the dictionary.

Not all ghost words are recognized as errors, removed from reference works, and forgotten. One example of a well-established ghost word is the word syllabus. The Roman writer Cicero had correctly used the Latin word sittabus in his writings to refer to the title and author label on a manuscript. In a 1470 edition of Cicero's

works, sittabus was miswritten as syllabus; the miswritten ghost word syllabus has now achieved status as a commonly used word referring to an outline of the contents of a course.

 

According to paragraph 1, the word Dord

o       has appeared in numerous physics and chemistry texts

o       was mistakenly added to a dictionary

o       can be used in physics and chemistry to refer to density

  • can still be found in dictionaries

 

It is indicated in paragraph 2 that the word syllabus

  • was used by Cicero
  • today refers to a label on a manuscript
  • came about as a misspelling of a different word
  • appeared in dictionaries in the fourteenth century

 

Вопросы об отсутствующей информации

Как сформулирован вопрос:

It is NOT stated

It is NOT mentioned

It is NOT discussed

It is NOT true

It is NOT indicated

All of the following are true EXCEPT

 

Где искать ответ:

Варианты ответов обычно приводятся в том же порядке, в котором соответствующая информация изложена в тексте. Иногда все три варианта ответа, которые необходимо исключить, встречаются в одном параграфе, а иногда они разбросаны по всему тексту.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

  1. Определите ключевое слово или идею в вопросе.
  2. Бегло просмотрите текста, чтобы найти ключевое слово / идею или их синонимы.
  3. Внимательно прочитайте предложения, в которых содержится ключевое слово или идея.
  4. Исключите варианты ответов, которые однозначно содержатся в тексте.
  5. Выберите ответ, который искажает информацию в тексте или вообще не упоминается.

 

 

Пример

Moonbows

Many people are quite familiar with rainbows, but few are as familiar with moonbows. Rainbows are caused by sunlight hitting raindrops and bouncing back. You can see a rainbow when the Sun is low in the sky behind you and it is raining ahead of you. Light from the Sun reflects off the inside surfaces of raindrops and is bent as it travels through them. It appears as a band of colors because each of the colors in sunlight is bent to a different angle.

Moonbows are far less common than are rainbows, but they are formed in much the same way. They require a very specific set of circumstances to occur. When they do occur, they occur just after a full Moon, a Moon at its brightest, has risen in the east and just after the Sun has set in the west, and it must also be raining in the west. In this situation, a moonbow may be visible to you if you are facing west and if the Moon is behind you. Light from the bright Moon reflects off the inside surfaces of the raindrops in the west and bends the colors to create a moonbow.

 

1. According to paragraph 1, it is NOT true that you can see a rainbow when

o     the Sun is low in the sky

o     the Sun is in front of you

o     it is raining in front of you

o     the Sun's rays are reflected off the raindrops

 

2. It is NOT indicated in paragraph 2

o     where the moon must be in the sky for a moonbow to occur

o       at what time of day moonbows occur

o     which direction you must be facing to see a moonbow

o     in which parts of the world moonbows occur

 

 

Вопросы о подтексте

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

It is implied in paragraph X...

It can be inferred from paragraph X

It is most likely that...

What probably happened...?

 

Где искать ответ:

Порядок  вопросов соответствуют тому порядку, в котором информация представлена в тексте. В этом типе вопросов обычно указывается параграф, где необходимо искать ответ.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

  1. Определите ключевое слово или идею в вопросе.
  2. Бегло просмотрите текста, чтобы найти ключевое слово / идею или их синонимы
  3. Внимательно прочитайте предложения, в которых содержится ключевое слово или идея.
  4. Проанализируйте полученную информацию, пытаясь понять, что хотел сказать автор «между строк».
  5. Правильный ответ не содержится в тексте напрямую, а «зашифрован» в тексте.

 

Пример

Ancient Coins

Long before coins were invented, metals such as gold, silver, copper, and bronze were used as a medium of exchange for trade. However, each piece of metal had to be weighed each time it was used in trade to establish its value. The Lydians of western Anatolia were the first to begin producing metal coins in standard weights in the seventh century B.C., impressing a seal into the coin to indicate its value.

One such coin minted during the time of Lydian King Croesus, who ruled from 560 B.C. to 546 B.C., has been recovered by archeologists: this coin is imprinted with the heads and forelegs of two animals, a bull and a lion, who are facing each other. It was not until 525 B.C. that coins with images on both sides came into being.

 

1. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that gold came into use as a medium of exchange

o       before 700 B.C.

o       after 700 B.C.

o     during the reign of King Croesus

o       in 525 B.C.

 

2. It is implied in paragraph 2 that coins from the time of King Croesus were all

  • imprinted on one side only
  • made of gold
  • imprinted with two animals
  • imprinted on both sides

 

 

Вопросы о цели автора

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

Why does the author...

The author mentions X in order to...

 

 

Где искать ответ:

Рядом с ключевым словом или понятием, которые выделены фоном.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

  1. Внимательно прочитайте выделенную информацию.
  2. Обратите внимание на контекст, и определите, как выделенная информация связана с этим контекстом.
  3. Выберите правильный ответ, основываясь на контексте.

 

Пример

 

The Magnetosphere

 

The magnetosphere is the region of space in which Earth's magnetic field, which is due to currents in Earth's iron- rich core, is dominant. Rather than having a spherical shape around Earth, the magnetosphere has the look of a teardrop, with a tail pointing away from the Sun. On Earth's sunward side, solar winds serve to compress the magnetosphere, while on Earth's opposite side, interaction with the solar wind draws the magnetosphere into a tail that extends well beyond the orbit of the Moon.

Earth has a relatively strong magnetic field, at least in comparison to the other inner planets. Mercury and Venus have no detectable magnetic field, and if Mars has one, it is extremely weak. In this respect, Earth is quite dissimilar to the other inner planets.

 

1. Why does the author mention a teardrop in the passage?

  • To indicate that the magnetosphere consists of liquids
  • To make the point that the magnetosphere causes problems
  • To explain how the magnetosphere was formed
  • To indicate the shape of the magnetosphere

 

 

2. The author mentions Mercury, Venus, and Mars in order to

  • differentiate the inner planets from one outer one
  • give examples to support a point about the inner planets other than Earth
  • emphasize similarities between Earth and the other inner planets
  • provide examples of planets with stronger magnetic fields than Earth's

 

 

Вопросы о значении слов

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

The word (or phrase) X is closest in meaning to ...

The word (or phrase) X could best be replaced by ...

 

Где искать ответ:

Информация, которая помогает понять значение выделенного слова, обычно содержится в том же предложении, что и само слово.

Как отвечать на вопрос:

  1. Найдите выделенное слово в соответствующем параграфе.
  2. Внимательно прочитайте предложение с выделенным словом.
  3. Обратите внимание на контекст, который поможет вам понять значение выделенного слова.
  4. Выберите тот вариант ответа, который ближе всего в данном контексте.

 

Пример

The Moho

The dividing line between the Earth's mantle and crust is called the Moho, which is short for Mohorovicic discontinuity and is named after the scientist who discovered it. The mantle is the region of the Earth that extends from the outer edge of the core almost to the surface; it is 2,900 kilometers thick and encompasses about 84 percent of the total volume of the Earth. The crust, on the other hand, is the thin outer layer of the Earth. The term Moho is used to indicate where the mantle ends and the crust begins.

Using the reflection of seismic waves at thousands of different locations, scientists have been able to draw some interesting conclusions about the Moho. First of all, the crust is very thin, averaging only about 15 to 20 kilometers in thickness, compared with tens of thousands of kilometers in width. In addition, the Moho varies to a considerable degree in depth and is deepest below the highest mountain ranges and shallower below regions with lower surface elevations. The Moho reaches depths of about 70 kilometers beneath massive mountain ranges, approximately 40 kilometers beneath average continental regions, and only 6 kilometers beneath the ocean floor.

 

1. The word encompasses in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

o     contains

o     searches

o     encircles

o     directs

 

2. The word draw in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by

o     sketch

o     pull

o     draft

o     make

 

 

Вопросы-ссылки

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

The word X refers to ...

 

Где искать ответ:

Местоимение выделено фоном. Слово, к которому оно относится, как правило, находится в предыдущем предложении или части предложения, однако в некоторых случаях оно может находиться и после выделенного слова.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

  1. Найдите выделенное слово.
  2. Прочитайте предложение перед выделенным словом.
  3. Try each of the nouns in the context around the highlighted word.
  4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers, and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.

 

Пример

Formation of Tornadoes

A tornado is created when warm, moist air rises from the ground and comes into contact with a mass of colder air at the bottom of a thundercloud. The rising air pushes against the colder air, and the rotation of the earth causes the air to spin, in much the same way that water in a sink spins as it goes down a drain.

The pressure at the center of a tornado is much lower than that in the air surrounding the tornado. The low pressure creates a funnel in the middle of the tornado, which causes destruction by acting much like a vacuum cleaner and sucking up whatever is in its path.

 

1. The word that in paragraph 2 refers to

  • pressure
  • center
  • tornado
  • air

 

2. The word which in paragraph 2 refers to

  • funnel
  • middle
  • tornado
  • vacuum cleaner

 

 

Вопросы на упрощение текста (вопросы - перефразирования)

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information...?

 

Где искать ответ:

Предложение выделено фоном в тексте. Как правило, вся информация, необходимая для того, чтобы найти правильный ответ, содержится в выделенном предложении.

 

Как отвечать на вопрос:

1. Внимательно прочитайте выделенное предложение.

2. Разбейте предложение на смысловые части, принимая во внимание знаки препинания и вводные слова.

3. В тех редких случаях, когда выделенное предложение ссылается на информацию, которой в нем нет, прочитайте соседние предложения.

4. Выберите то предложение, которое ближе всего по смыслу передает содержание выделенного предложения. Правильный вариант ответа не должен содержать новой информации, не должен упускать или искажать важную информацию из выделенного предложения.

 

Пример

The Great Red Spot

One distinctive feature of the planet Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a massive oval of swirling reddish-brown clouds. Were Earth to be juxtaposed with the Great Red Spot, our planet would be dwarfed in comparison, with a diameter less than half that of the Great Red Spot. The Spot's clouds, most likely tinted red as a result of the phosphorus that they contain, circulate in a counterclockwise direction. The outer winds require six Earth days to complete the circumference of the Great Red Spot, a length of time indicative of the vastness of the Great Red Spot.

 

1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?

Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

 

  • The density of the Great Red Spot is much higher than that of the Earth.
  • If the diameter of the Great Red Spot were doubled, it would equal that of the Earth.
  • By placing the Earth next to the Great Red Spot, one could see that the Earth has a much smaller diameter.
  • Because the Earth is close to the Great Red Spot, Earth is influenced by its huge size.

 

2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • The Earth's outer winds move a distance equal to the circumference of the Great Red Spot.
  • The outer winds of the Great Red Spot move more quickly than do those on Earth.
  • The winds moving across the Great Red Spot finally change direction every six Earth days.
  • The fact that the winds take so long to move around the Great Red Spot proves how big it is.

 

Вопросы «Вставь предложение»

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

Look at the four squares [■].

 

 

Где искать ответ:

Места, в которые можно вставить предложение, выделены в тексте.

Как отвечать на вопрос:

1. Внимательно изучите данное предложение, проанализируйте ключевые слова и идеи, особенно в начале и в конце предложения.

2. Подберите место в тексте, где такое предложение будет смотреться наиболее логично. Оно должно органично продолжать предыдущее предложение и плавно переходить в последующее.

 

Пример

The Origin of Chess

The origins of the game of chess are not known with certainty, and traditional stories in a number of cultures claim credit for developing the game [■]. One legend claims that chess was invented during the Trojan Wars [■].  According to another legend, chess was developed to depict the battle between two royal brothers for the crown of Persia [■]. In a third legend, chess was the creation of the mythical Arab philosopher Sassa. [■]

Whatever its origins, chess was known to exist in India as early as 500 B.C., and it eventually spread from India to Persia, where it took on much of the terminology that today is part of the game [■]. Foot soldiers in the Persian army were called piyadah, which became the pawns of today's game, and the Persian chariot was a rukh, which became the rook [■]. The Persian king was the shah, which evolved into the name chess. [■] Shahmat, which means "the king is dead", became the expression checkmate [■].

 

1. Look at the four squares [■1 that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

 

When one brother was killed, the remaining brother had the game invented to explain the tragic events to his mother.

 

Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

 

2. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

 

This expression is used during the game to indicate that one player's king is on the verge of being captured.

Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

 

 

Вопросы-резюме

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

A summary information chart is given.

 

Где искать ответ:

Поскольку ответ на данный вопрос демонстрирует понимание основных моментов текста, информация, необходимая для правильного ответа на вопрос, разбросана по всему тексту.

Как отвечать на вопрос:

1. Прочитайте предложение - тезис, приведенное вверху таблицы.

2. Прочитайте предложения и выберите те три из них, которые содержат наиболее общие идеи, развивающие предложение- тезис и соответствующие содержанию текста.

3. Исключите те предложения, которые являются фактическими деталями, искажают информацию из текста либо дают информацию, которой в тексте не содержится, а также те, которые не развивают предложение - тезис.

 

Пример

The Great Compromise

At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, numerous plans for the structure of the legislative branch of government were proposed and debated extensively. There was a great amount of disagreement over how the legislature should be structured, with the greatest amount of discord arising between the smaller states and the larger states. The smaller and less populous states wanted all states to be represented equally in the legislature, while the larger and more populous states favored representation according to population. The final decision reached at the convention, which has come to be known as the Great Compromise, was to create a bicameral legislature with a Senate and a House of Representatives: each state was given two senators so that the Senate would reflect the will of each state equally, and seats were to be apportioned to the House of Representatives according to population so that larger states would have a stronger voice in the House.

 

To return to the question, click on View Question.

 

Directions: An introductory sentence or a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas

in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

 

This passage discusses how the legislative branch of the U.S. government came to be organized.

 

Answer Choices (choose 3 to complete the chart):

 

  • A compromise was reached that gave some advantages to both smaller and larger states.
  • Many different plans were submitted at the Constitutional Convention.
  • States with smaller populations preferred that each state be given equal representation.
  • The New Jersey Plan was a plan submitted to advance the rights of smaller states.
  • The number of representatives in the House of Representatives would be the same for each state.
  • States with larger populations wanted representation to be based on population.

 

 

Вопросы по классификации («Заполни таблицу»)

 

Как сформулирован вопрос:

Дана схематическая таблица.

Где искать ответ:

Поскольку ответ на данный вопрос демонстрирует понимание основных моментов текста, информация, необходимая для правильного ответа на вопрос, разбросана по всему тексту.

Как отвечать на вопрос:

1.    Прочитайте каждый вариант ответа и определите, дает ли он информацию в соответствии с текстом либо наоборот, искажает ее, или приводит новую информацию.

2. Исключите те варианты, которые искажают информацию из текста или вообще не упоминаются.

3.    Переместите те предложения, которые соответствуют содержанию текста, в нужную часть таблицы.

4.    Не пытайтесь использовать все предложения.

5.    Вы можете получить баллы даже в том случае, если в Вашем ответе содержится одна или две ошибки.

 

Пример

Sand Dunes

Sandy deserts contain enormous volumes of sand eroded from mountains and carried to the deserts by wind or water. The huge quantities of sand that make up sandy deserts are blown about into dunes of various shapes.

Ridge dunes form where there are large amounts of sand, generally in the interiors of deserts, and winds blow in one direction. Under these conditions, parallel ridges of sand, known as transverse dunes, form at right angles to the wind.

When the direction of the wind changes so that it comes from different directions, star-shaped dunes form from the massive amounts of sand in desert interiors. Star-shaped dunes are relatively stable dunes that reach incredible heights, up to 80 meters high in some deserts, and are quite common in massive deserts such as the Sahara.

Crescent dunes form on the edges of deserts where there is less sand and where the winds blow mainly in one direction. These dunes, which are also known as barchan dunes are less stable than star-shaped dunes and can shift as much as 20 meters per year as winds blow over the outer curves of the crescent in the direction of the pointed ends.

 

Directions: Select the appropriate sentences from the answer choices, and match them to the critical information about the sand dunes to which they relate. THREE of the answer choices will not be used. This question is worth 3 points.

Amount of sand

Direction of winds

 

Answer Choices (choose 4 to complete the chart):

 

o       Ridge and crescent dunes form where the winds blow from one direction.

o       Crescent dunes are  also known as barchan dunes.

o       Star-shaped dunes form where the winds blow from different directions.

o       Transverse dunes are created parallel to the wind.

o       Ridge and star dunes form where there is a lot of sand.

o       Star-shaped dunes are more stable than crescent dunes.

o       Crescent dunes form where there is less sand.